The term dental surgery includes many different procedures. Some common dental surgeries include:
DENTAL IMPLANT SURGERY AND OTHER COMMON DENTAL SURGERIES
Dental Implant Surgery
Dental implant surgery replaces damaged or missing teeth with artificial teeth that look and function likes natural ones. How dental implant surgery is performed depends on the type of dental implants you need and the condition of your jawbone. But all dental implant surgery occurs in stages and involves several procedures. Dental implants provide a foundation for replacement teeth that look, feel, and function like natural teeth. No more need to deal with uncomfortable dentures or bridges; with permanent dental implants, a person who has lost teeth regains the ability to eat and smile with effortless confidence.
Dental implants can support replacements for one tooth, several teeth, or even all of the teeth. Dental implants allow outstanding results in both appearance and function of the new teeth. The implants themselves are titanium cylinders which are surgically implanted into the jawbone where teeth are missing. Small posts are then attached to the implant, providing stable anchors for artificial replacement teeth, from individual teeth to bridges to full dentures. Implants also help preserve facial structure, preventing the bone deterioration that occurs when teeth are missing.
Over a period of time, the jawbone associated with missing teeth atrophies or is reabsorbed. This often leaves a condition in which there is poor quality and quantity of bone suitable for placement of dental implants. In these situations, most patients are not candidates for placement of dental implants. Today, we have the ability to grow bone where needed. This not only gives us the opportunity to place implants of proper length and width, it also gives us a chance to restore functionality and esthetic appearance.
Bone grafting can repair implant sites with inadequate bone structure due to previous extractions, gum disease or injuries. The bone is either obtained from a tissue bank or your own bone is taken from the jaw, hip or tibia (below the knee.) Sinus bone grafts are also performed to replace bone in the posterior upper jaw. In addition, special membranes may be utilized that dissolve under the gum and protect the bone graft and encourage bone regeneration. This is called guided bone regeneration or guided tissue regeneration.
Introducing PRF: Use of Stem cell in dentistry
PRF (Platelet Rich Fibrin) is one of the newest procedures in dentistry. This technology and technique allows dentists to use patients’ own cells to grow bone tissue. When a patient loses a tooth or bone due to periodontal disease, that bone can be grafted with bone that dentists buy from different companies which may be cow bone, cadaver bone or synthetic bone. However, such bone does not have the regular blood supply that a normal bone would have. This lack of blood supply could lead to delayed healing, infection and less integration of the grafted bone with the patient’s own bone. This problem has been solved with PRF. In many cases when using this technique, the platelet membrane can be used to signal the patient’s body to grow more bone; therefore, no outside bone is needed.
PRF procedure, as far as the patient is concerned, is very simple. The day of the surgery, the patient’s blood is drawn in the office. Then the plasma in the patient’s blood is separated. Plasma contains platelets and platelets consist of cell fragments and proteins. These cell fragments are leukocytes and proteins such as cytokines. Cytokines are a group of molecules that help with reducing inflammation and bleeding. This platelet portion will turn into a gel membrane which is held together by fibrins. This membrane can be placed in the implant area. Sometimes, no outside bone is needed. In a case where outside bone is needed, this membrane from the patient’s own blood will provide white blood cells and proteins to reduce the risk of infection, inflammation, and bleeding. It also helps speed up the healing process and integration of the implant with the patient’s body.
All in all, PRF is a revolutionary step in dentistry. It gives access to growth factors needed to make bone. Since these growth factors are from the patient’s own body, it is non-toxic and no outside bone is involved. It can be used on any patient who has lost bone, or does not have enough bone for an implant.
Sinus lift procedure
The maxillary sinuses are behind your cheeks and on top of the upper teeth. Sinuses are like empty rooms that have nothing in them. Some of the roots of the natural upper teeth extend up into the maxillary sinuses. When these upper teeth are removed, there is often just a thin wall of bone separating the maxillary sinus and the mouth. Dental implants need bone to hold them in place. When the sinus wall is very thin, it is impossible to place dental implants in this bone.
There is a solution and it’s called a sinus graft or sinus lift graft. The dental implant surgeon enters the sinus from where the upper teeth used to be. The sinus membrane is then lifted upward and donor bone is inserted into the floor of the sinus. Keep in mind that the floor of the sinus is the roof of the upper jaw. After several months of healing, the bone becomes part of the patient’s jaw and dental implants can be inserted and stabilized in this new sinus bone. The sinus graft makes it possible for many patients to have dental implants when years ago there was no other option other than wearing loose dentures.
If enough bone between the upper jaw ridge and the bottom of the sinus is available to stabilize the implant well, sinus augmentations and implant placement can sometimes be performed as a single procedure. If not enough bone is available, the Sinus Augmentation will have to be performed first, then the graft will have to mature for several months, depending upon the type of graft material used. Once the graft has matured, the implants can be placed.
Wisdom Teeth removal
Wisdom teeth are the last teeth to erupt within the mouth. When they align properly and gum tissue is healthy, wisdom teeth do not have to be removed. Unfortunately, this does not generally happen. The extraction of wisdom teeth is necessary when they are prevented from properly erupting within the mouth. They may grow sideways, partially emerge from the gum and even remain trapped beneath the gum and bone. Impacted teeth can take many positions in the bone as they attempt to find a pathway that will allow them to erupt successfully.
These poorly positioned impacted teeth can cause many problems. When they are partially erupted, the opening around the tooth allows bacteria to grow and will eventually cause an infection. The result: swelling, stiffness, pain and illness. The pressure from the erupting wisdom tooth may move other teeth and disrupt the orthodontic or natural alignment of teeth. The most serious problem occurs when tumors or cysts form around the impacted wisdom tooth, resulting in the destruction of the jawbone and healthy teeth. Removal of the offending impacted tooth or teeth usually resolves these problems. Early removal is recommended to avoid such future problems and to decrease the surgical risk involved with the procedure.
During the extraction process the gum tissue is opened over the tooth and any bone on the surface of the tooth is removed. The tissue connecting the tooth to the bone is separated and the tooth is then removed. In some cases the tooth is broken into smaller pieces for easier extraction.
After the tooth is removed, you may need stitches. Cotton gauze is placed over the wound to help stop the bleeding.